basic information

European Nightjar

Caprimulgus europaeus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Обыкновенный козодой | Кәдімгі тентекқұс

Almaty, Republic Square
© Askar Isabekov


European Nightjar breeds and occurs on migration everywhere in Kazakhstan. Please see the detailed distribution of breeding ranges and pass territories of the different subspecies in the section Subspecies.


Common, in places rare breeding migrant. Inhabits the steppe forest patches, riparian forests, sandy deserts and low old mountains with bushes and reed-beds on streams. On Altai inhabits meadow-steppe belt with bushes and rocks at altitudes 1450-1600 m, and in Western Tien Shan lives in juniper-tree forests at altitudes up to 2000 m. Arrives in end of April – May, migration finishes in early June. Doesn’t build the, lays eggs on bare ground. Clutch of 2 eggs is laid in mid-May to end June. Very late breeding observed in Zaysan depression, where clutch was found 21 July 1995 and chicks were hatched on July 25th. Incubation is 17-18 days. Both parents feed juveniles. Probably re-nests after loss of first clutch. Autumn migration begins in August, mass flight occurs in September, latest birds recorded in end of October (24 October 2000). On Chokpak Pass in spring 184 europaeus, 532 zarudnyi, 110 unwini and 44 plumipes were ringed; in autumn - 158 europaeus, 209 zarudnyi, 174 unwini and 45 plumipes.


Caprimulgus europaeus europaeus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Description. The darkest and largest race. General colour of upper parts is dark-brown, black strips are broad and brown bordered. At males the white spot on inner web of PM10 is rounded and doesn’t extend or barely touches the shaft; on PM9 white spot doesn’t pass or barely passes on outer web. At females the first from wing-top buffy spot on inner webs of PM 10-9 is barely differs from rest spots.
    Distribution. Everywhere occurs in Kazakhstan on seasonal migration.

Caprimulgus europaeus sarudnyi (Hartert, 1912)

    Description. Slightly lighter than europaeus, with lack of rusty tone on head, throat and wings. At males the white spot on inner web of PM10 adjoined to shaft for 1-1.5 cm; on PM9 white spot usually formed the band through both webs (sometimes only small spot on outer web). At females the first from wing-top rusty-buffy spot on inner web of PM9 is much larger and brighter that rest ones.
    Distribution. Breeds in northern part of Kazakhstan, from Urda village eastward to Pavlodar Trans-Irtysh and Kalbinskiy Altai. Occupies Southwest Altai, southern slope of Lineyny ridge, Zaysan depression, Tarbagatay ridge, Dzhungarskiy Alatau and Tien Shan in west up to eastern spurs of Zailiyskiy Alatau ridge and also nearby plains. On migration occurs in south from said range.

Caprimulgus europaeus unwini (Hume, 1871)

    Description. General colour of upper parts is light grey. At males the white spot on inner web of PM9 always formed the broad band through the both webs.
    Distribution. Breeds in deserts of southern Kazakhstan (Mangyshlak and Ustyurt), xerophytic mountains (Karatau, Chu-Iliyskiye), and also Talasskiy Alatau, Kirgizskiy Alatau and Zailiyskiy Alatau ridges. In said area occurs on migration too.

Caprimulgus europaeus plumipes (Przewalski, 1876)

    Description. General colour of upper parts is light-buffy or sandy. Dark streaking on head and mantle is faint and slightly appreciable; light spots on scapulars and wing coverts are buffy and poorly expressed on background. Cross bands on central tail feathers are narrow and not so dark, as at other races. Primaries are with broad rusty cross-spots on both webs, on inner web spots expand or barely expand the shaft. Tarsus feathered stronger than other races.
    Distribution. Rare occurs on migration in southern and south-eastern Kazakhstan.


Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург, Изд-во Уральского университета, 2000.



Caprimulgus europaeus europaeus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Caprimulgus europaeus sarudnyi
(Hartert, 1912)
Caprimulgus europaeus unwini
(Hume, 1871)
Caprimulgus europaeus plumipes
(Przewalski, 1876)

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Анна Ясько: Скорее всего, тоже белошапочная.


Андрей Коваленко: Зяблик. Но я бы такие фото не выставлял...


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