basic information

Stock Pigeon

Columba oenas (Linnaeus, 1758)

Клинтух | Түз кептері

Toretam area, Karmakchi region, Kyzylorda oblast
© Askar Isabekov


Breeds in Ural valley, and in some places of northern and south-eastern Kazakhstan. On migrations occurs everywhere. Winters in south of country. Please see the detailed distribution in the section Subspecies.


Rare breeding migrant but quite numerous on migration. Inhabits the oak, elm, willow flood-plain forests, the mixed forests, and the willow, poplar, ash, maple groves. On migration occurs in open lands, stubble fields, river valleys. Arrives in end of March – April by small flocks of 5-20 birds, migration finishes in early May. Breeds by separate pairs, in suitable habitat not far one from another. Nests is located in tree holes (in south regions in holes of Asiatic Poplar). 2 eggs in clutch. No data about breeding from Kazakhstan. Autumn migration begins in end of August. Mass flight occurs in Ural valley and in foothills of Western Tien Shan where flocks of several hundred birds are not rare. Adults and juveniles migrate in the same flocks. Latest birds recorded in end of October.


Columba oenas oenas (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Description. General colour is darker than yarkandensis, under parts are more grey-bluish, less ashy-grey than yarkandensis; mantle is usually brownish tinged. Male wing length 196-228 (212), female 200-215 (208) mm.
    Distribution. Breeds in middle current of Ural valley and probably in its lower reaches from Uralsk to Chapaevo. Probably nests in some places of Northern Kazakhstan. In summer observed in Shortandy area, Western Altai and Bukhtarma valley, between Ust-Kamenogorsk and Ridder, in Semipalatinsk vicinities. Nest was found 21 July 2001 at clay cliff on Orta-Terekty canyon, Dzhungarskiy Alatau. On migration occurs everywhere. In winter the flock of 12 birds observed 18 December 1963 in lower reaches of Emba, near Krasnokutsk village, in Bukhtarma valley.

Columba oenas yarkandensis (Buturlin, 1909)

    Description. General colour lighter than oenas, under parts are more ashy-grey, less grey-bluish than oenas; mantle is lack or almost lack of brownish tinge. Male wing length 207-230 (220), female 205-221 (214) mm.
    Distribution. Irregularly breeds in Tien Shan (Pskem, Charyn valleys, and Bartagoy, but in last place disappear after tree felling and the creation of the reservoir); the seasonal distribution is unknown. Probably the wintering near Almaty (since 1988) birds belong to this subspecies.


Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург. Изд-во Уральского университета, 2000.



Columba oenas oenas
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Columba oenas yarkandensis
(Buturlin, 1909)

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