basic information

Eurasian Nuthatch

Sitta europaea (Linnaeus, 1758)

Обыкновенный поползень | Орман көктекесі

© Viktor Kolesnikov


Breeds in Altai and in Trans-Irtysh area. In the northern parts of Kazakhstan occurs on winter dispersals. Please see detailed distribution in the section Subspecies.


Common resident, in places rare winter visitor. Inhabits the coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests on plains and in mountains at altitudes to 1900 m. On dispersal occurs in deciduous forests in Ural valley. Pairs are formed in March – mid April. Nest is located in tree hole (larch, birch) at height 2-20 m above the ground; nest is built from bark, plant bast and leaves. If the hole entrance is too large, then birds plaster its by clay leaving a hole diameter of 25-35 mm. Only female constructs nest, male escorts her. Clutch of 5-10, usually 6-8 eggs is laid in early May – early June. Female incubates clutch about two weeks, both parents feed juveniles which fledge at age 21-24 days old, in mid-June to mid-July. Broods stay together until mid-August. Very rarely occurs on dispersal in Ural valley in October.


Sitta europaea europaea (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Description. Throat, breast and belly are white; males have chestnut feathers on belly-flanks, chestnut on females is dimmer but more developed. Bill is longer, thicker and more massive; general sizes bigger than in asiatica. Male wing length 85.0-91.0 (88.0) mm.
    Distribution. Probably this race occurs on dispersal in Ural valley, in south to Atyrau. It was collected in Airtau on Kokchetav upland, however later not observed here. Single bird recorded in January 1991 in Betagach forest (Naurzum Reserve) and 25 October 2002 at Kurgaldzhino Reserve.

Sitta europaea asiatica (Gould, 1837)

    Description. Throat, breast and belly are white. Bill shorter, less massive and thinner; general sizes lesser than in europaea. Male wing 74.0-82.0 (78.0) mm.
    Distribution. Breeds in coniferous forests of Trans-Irtysh area, in Kalbinskiy Altai and in Southwest Altai (Ivanovskiy and Altaiskiy Tarbagatay ridges, Markakol lake). Vagrant was shot in Taraz in February 1966.


Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург. Изд-во Уральского университета, 2000.



Sitta europaea europaea
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Sitta europaea asiatica
(Gould, 1837)

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