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Eurasian Jackdaw

Corvus monedula (Linnaeus, 1758)

Галка | Шауқарға
adult

2011-05-20
Ust-Kamenogorsk, Ablaketka,
© Vladimir Shefer

Distribution

Breeds directly throughout in Kazakhstan, both on plains and in mountains. It absent in Betpak-Dala, in Northern Trans-Balkhash area and in majority parts of Kazakh Upland. It winters mostly in southern part of Kazakhstan, rarely further north only in warm winters.

Biology

Common, in places abundant, resident or short distant migrant. Inhabits the deciduous and riparian forests in valleys, the pine and birch groves, clay precipices, cliffs and the villages and towns on plains and in mountains at altitudes to 1500-2500 m. During the migration and wintering occurs on the stubble fields, meadows, hayfields, around the cattle farms and rubbish dumps. Spring migration begins in mid – end February, most birds arrives in March, the last birds recorded in early April. Migrates in flocks of several hundreds or thousands birds. Breeds in loose colonies of two-five dozen, rare by single pair. Nest is located in tree holes, nesting boxes, hole in clay precipice (burrowed by both partners), in old Rook nests, in witch-brooms, in crevice of rock, masonry or monument. Nest is built from the twigs and dry grass and is lined with hair, rags, scraps of paper and feathers. Both partners repair the old nest or build new one for 2-24 days. Clutch of 2-8, usually 4-6 eggs, is laid in mid April – second half of May. Only female incubates for 13-16 days, male brings the food to female. Both parents feed juveniles, which fledge at age 30-33 days old, in late May – late June. Autumn movement begins in July, often in mixed flocks together with Rooks. True migration begins in the end of September. Most birds departed in October, odd birds linger to late October – early November. In winter occurs with other corvids often around towns and villages.

Subspecies

Corvus monedula monedula (Linnaeus, 1758)

Corvus (monedula) daurica (Pallas, 1776)


    Distribution. Observed in Zaysan and Alakol depressions, in Ile valley and in Southern Altai on Markakol lake. In Ile valley near Dzharkent Daurian Jackdaws were observed from late October 1899 to early March 1900. On Markakol' lake recorded 10-30 March 1980, 10 March – 1 April 1982 and 16 March 1984. Birds collected near Chilik 12 December 1939, not far from Almaty 13 March 1951, and at Sunkar village (at foothills of Ketmen ridge) 24 May 1956. Near Tashkent one bird obtained 17 October 1926, and occasionally observed from late November to mid of December.

References

Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург. Изд-во Уральского университета, 2000.

supplement

subspecies

Corvus monedula monedula
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Corvus (monedula) daurica
(Pallas, 1776)
information

synonyms

Coloeus monedula
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Corvus monedula soemmerringii
(Fischer, 1811)
Corvus monedula ultracollaris
(Kleinschmidt, 1919)
Corvus monedula schluteri
(Kleinschmidt, 1935)
Corvus monedula tischleri
(Kleinschmidt, 1935)
Corvus monedula sophiae
(Dunajewski, 1938)

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