© Vladimir Shefer
Breeds directly throughout in Kazakhstan, both on plains and in mountains. It absent in Betpak-Dala, in Northern Trans-Balkhash area and in majority parts of Kazakh Upland. It winters mostly in southern part of Kazakhstan, rarely further north only in warm winters.
Common, in places abundant, resident or short distant migrant. Inhabits the deciduous and riparian forests in valleys, the pine and birch groves, clay precipices, cliffs and the villages and towns on plains and in mountains at altitudes to 1500-2500 m. During the migration and wintering occurs on the stubble fields, meadows, hayfields, around the cattle farms and rubbish dumps. Spring migration begins in mid – end February, most birds arrives in March, the last birds recorded in early April. Migrates in flocks of several hundreds or thousands birds. Breeds in loose colonies of two-five dozen, rare by single pair. Nest is located in tree holes, nesting boxes, hole in clay precipice (burrowed by both partners), in old Rook nests, in witch-brooms, in crevice of rock, masonry or monument. Nest is built from the twigs and dry grass and is lined with hair, rags, scraps of paper and feathers. Both partners repair the old nest or build new one for 2-24 days. Clutch of 2-8, usually 4-6 eggs, is laid in mid April – second half of May. Only female incubates for 13-16 days, male brings the food to female. Both parents feed juveniles, which fledge at age 30-33 days old, in late May – late June. Autumn movement begins in July, often in mixed flocks together with Rooks. True migration begins in the end of September. Most birds departed in October, odd birds linger to late October – early November. In winter occurs with other corvids often around towns and villages.
|Corvus monedula monedula (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Corvus (monedula) daurica (Pallas, 1776)|
Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург. Изд-во Уральского университета, 2000.
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1. Belyaev Alexandr (234)
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