Temirtau, Karaganda oblast
© Askar Isabekov
The House Sparrow is well known bird. The male has the dark-grey dark mottled crown and the dark-grey rump. The uppertail is olive-grey. The mantle is chestnut-brown with black longitudinal strips. The lores and under-eye strip are black. Behind the eyes and on the flanks of the head there are the broad chestnut bands connected on the neck. The cheeks are grey or dirty-white; the chin, throat, craw and top of the breast are black. The underparts are light-grey with the dark cores on the undertail. The lesser wing coverts are chestnut; median coverts are dark-brown with white tips; the greater coverts are blackish-brown with the broad clay-color edges. The flight feathers are dark-brownish with brown-clayey edges. The tail feathers are brownish with the narrow light edges. The bill is black, legs are dark-brown, and claws are black or dark-brown. The female is similar on female of Indian Sparrow but darker and dimmer. The bill is dark-brownish lighting to the base of the lower mandible. After the molting both male and female have brownish and buffy edges of the feathers. Juveniles are similar on female but have more brownish olive tinged color. The crown, wings and tail are slightly lighter. The bill is light-brownish. Weight 25,5-37,7 grams, wings 70-81, tail 45-62 mm.
The House Sparrow breeds on most part of Kazakhstan, in the south to Mangyshlak (Tuschibek settlement), Aralsk and Shymkent. In mountains it distributes in the wake to the human settlements up to 1750 m in Altai and 2100 m in Tien Shan (two females observed 27 May on Kosmostantsia, 3300 m). Seasonal movements at Chokpak Pass apparently have local character.
The House Sparow is common resident. It inhabits the human settlements, both large and small, and sometimes the clay precipices, raptor nests near villages; on plains and mountains up to 1750-2100 m. It breeds in separate pairs, not far from each other, or in loose colonies. The nest is built in the various cavities of human constructions, clay precipices, between the twigs or in the holes of the trees, in the raptor nest; from the thin twigs, dry grass and straw (sometimes green wormwood used too); and is lined with the plenty of feathers. Both male and female build the nest for 2-9 days. Clutches of 3-8, usually 5-6 eggs is in mid-April – July, both parent incubate for 11-12 days, and feed juveniles, which fledge at 11-14 days old, in early May – end August. So long breeding period is explained than the House Sparrow breeds up to three times per year. The repeated breeding after the losing of nest is common. On non-breeding time it lives in flocks up to several dozen birds, together with Tree Sparrow often. Sometimes it hybridises with the Indian Sparrow (Passer indicus). Some birds migrate on short distance, such individuals caught at Chokpak Pass regularly.
|Passer domesticus domesticus (Linnaeus,1758)|
|Passer (domesticus) indicus (Jardine et Selby, 1831)|
Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. "Птицы Казахстана" том 5. "Наука". Алма-Ата, 1974.
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