Koshmambet village, Almaty region
© Vassiliy Fedorenko
The Black-throated Thrush in size and proportion is mostly similar on the Fieldfare; slightly less. The adult male has the large black patch on the throat and breast; brownish-grey back; dark-brownish tail; light-grey underparts; and the washed dark streaks on flanks. Spring male is unmistakable identified; though the black throat patch is very variable on size and color (from dark-brownish to velvet-black; sometimes with the whitish mottles, especially under the beak). The female has on the craw the concentration of the dark streaks formed more or less compact dark bib. The Black-throated Thrush is distinguished on Fieldfare by the almost plain color of upper parts and the absence of rufous tones on under parts. Autumn males are similar on females by the color of head and breast, but notably darker. Juveniles on first plumage are also similar on females but have the light streaks on back, the rufous tips of wing coverts, and the dark streaks on breast and flanks. Underwings are rufous in all plumages. Weight 70-110 grams, length 24-27, wing 12,5-14,2, wingspan 40-45 cm.
Breeds only in eastern parts of Kazakhstan, in Southwest Altai, at Semipalatinsk, in Saur and Tarbagatay (upper reaches of Karabuga river). The nesting in Dzhungarskiy Alatau and Zailiyskiy Alatau is not proved. On migration occurs on other parts of Kazakhstan in the west to Ural valley and Mangyshlak. It winters in the south of Republic in north to Syrdarya valley and Semirechye; throughout in lowlands of Tien Shan and Dzhugarskiy Alatau where it common from September till May.
The Black-throat Thrush is common breeding migrant in East Kazakhstan; common (in some places rare) winter visitor in South and South-East Kazakhstan; and abundant (in some places rare) passage migrant in the south-east half of Kazakhstan. It inhabits in coniferous and mixed forests with domination of coniferous trees; on forests' edges near the rivers in mountains up to 2000-2200 m. On migration it visits deciduous and riparian forest, groves, gardens, bush thickets, forest-belts and reed-beds. Spring migration starts in the end of February – early March and continues untill April, birds migrate in small flocks of several dozens birds. Latest birds recorded in the end of May. It breeds in separate pairs. It nests in tree (spruce, pine) at 1.5-2 m above the ground; on stumps; in bushes; and rare on the ground. Nest is built from the soil-mixed thin twigs and dry grass and is lined with thin grass. Clutches of 4-7 greenish-blue with rust mottles eggs is in early May – early June. Both parents feed juveniles fledged in mid-June – mid-July. Autumn migration starts in August; on plains and in foothills birds appear in September. Majority of birds migrate from the end of September till first half of October, latest recorded in mid-November. In south-eastern Kazakhstan birds migrate in autumn mostly through mountains, but in spring Black-throated Thrushes fly by foothills and nearby plains. In Tien Shan the Black-throated Thrush is one of the abundant wintering birds. This time it often observed in the mixed flocks with Fieldfares and Mistle Thrushes.
В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург, Изд-во Уральского университета, 2000. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. А.Ф.Ковшарь "Певчие птицы". Алма-Ата, "Кайнар", 1983.
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