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basic information

European Greenfinch

Carduelis chloris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Обыкновенная зеленушка | Жасылтауылжық
male

2007-04-12
Almaty, Republic Square
© Askar Isabekov

Distribution

Breeds in Ural valley; in Southern Kazakhstan in Syrdaria and foothills of Tien Shan. The breeding range extended in northern part of Kazakhstan, and to east in foothills of Tien Shan. The detailed distribution please see in chapter Subspecies.

Biology

Common, in places rare short distance migrant. Inhabits the deciduous and juniper forests with bushes and glades, the gardens and roadside thickets in towns and villages, on plains and in mountains at altitudes up to 2000 m. On dispersal and wintering visits the cereal fields (especially sunflower), shelterbelts, gardens, kitchen-gardens and thickets of tall weeds. In southern Kazakhstan appears in mid-February – early March, latest migrants registered in mid-May; in Uralsk area appears in April. Breeds in separate pairs at distance 60-150 m from each other. Nest is located on elm, willow, juniper, poplar, apple-tree and apricot-tree at height 2.8-12 m above the ground; nest is built by female from the thin twigs, grass stems and rootlets and is lined with hair and feathers. Clutch of 4-6 eggs is laid in early April to end of June, female incubates clutch for 12-14 days. Both parents feed juveniles which fledge at age 13-14 days old. Rears two broods per season, re-nesting after loss of first clutch is common. Autumn migration begins in end of August – early September in flocks of 8-30 birds, and continues up to end of October. Some birds observed in winter time from November to February.

Subspecies

Carduelis chloris chloris (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Description. Yellow-green on upperparts is darker than in turkestanicus, with olive-brown shade.
    Distribution. Breeding in Uralsk and in middle current of Ural valley. Nesting in Northern Kazakhstan possible, as in south of Western Siberia it settles to east. Breeding pair observed in 1991 on Ust-Kamenogorsk suburb. On migration occurs in Volga-Ural area, in lower Ural valley, in Naurzum Reserve and Kurgaldzino Reserve, on Mangyshlak; recorded also in Karaganda, at Semipalatinsk and in Makanchi village area (subspecies not established). In winter occurs in lower Ural valley at Yamanka, and also in foothills of Western Altai and in Kalbinskiy Altai.

Carduelis chloris turkestanicus (Zarudny, 1907)

    Description. Yellow-green on upperparts is lighter than in chloris.
    Distribution. Breeding and also occurs on migration in Syrdarya valley up to Kzyl-Orda, at low altitude and in foothills of Tien Shan eastward to Almaty, where appeared in 1973. Settling probably proceeds. So, in April 1997, they were common in Chundzha village, and 14 May singing male observed in Dzharkent. In 1999-2000 recorded in foothills of Dzhungarskiy Alatau, in Ucharal, and in Zaysan town, where nest with juveniles found 22 May 2001. Wintering to south from Chimkent, and in Ile valley.

References

Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург. Издательство Уральского университета, 2000.

supplement

subspecies

Carduelis chloris chloris
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Carduelis chloris turkestanicus
(Zarudny, 1907)

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