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Yellowhammer

Emberiza citrinella (Linnaeus, 1758)

Обыкновенная овсянка | Кәдімгі сұлыкеш
male

2011-02-25
South Kazakhstan, Dzhabagly v.
© Yevgeny Belousov

Distribution

Breeding in middle current of Ural valley (up to Uralsk) and in Aktobe area, on Kokchetav upland (Sarymbetskiy pine forest), in Borovoye, on Ishim valley in Petropavlovsk area, in Karaganda, Pavlodarskoye Trans-Irtysh area, near Semipalatinsk, in Kalbinskiy Altai, in Southwest Altai and its foothills, and in Tarbagatay. On migration and in winter occurs almost everywhere, both on plains and at low altitude in mountains.

Biology

Common breeding migrant, in non-breeding area common passage migrant or common winter visitor. Inhabits the river valleys, the plain deciduous forests with bushy undergrowth and tall grass; the deciduous, mixed and coniferous forests with bushy undergrowth and tall grass in mountains at altitudes up to 1800 m in Altai. On migration and in wintering occurs in open lands with shrubs and trees, in shelterbelts, gardens, kitchen-gardens, thickets of tall weeds and in villages. In spring in southern Kazakhstan migration begins in end of February – early March; the mass flying away is in mid-March, the last birds recorded in early April. In northern areas appears in second half of March – early April, latest migrants registered in first ten days of May. Breeds in separate pairs. Nest is located on ground under the bush or grass, rare in bush at height 15-20 cm above the ground; nest is built from the dry grass and is lined with the rootlets and hair. Clutch of 4-5, rarely 6 eggs is laid in May to end of July. For 12-14 days mainly female incubates clutch, male sometimes changes female for a short time. Both parents feed nestling which fledge at age 10-13 days old. Autumn migration begins in end of August, mainly occurs in September, and continues up to end of October - November. Yellowhammers migrate in flocks of 20-50 birds, often together with Pine Bunting, Brumbling and Chaffich.

Subspecies

Emberiza citrinella erythrogenys (C.L.Brehm, 1855)

    Description. Has more chestnut on underparts than nominee race, sometimes chestnut prevails.

References

Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург. Издательство Уральского университета, 2000.

supplement

subspecies

Emberiza citrinella erythrogenys
(C.L.Brehm, 1855)

hybrids

Emberiza (citrinella x leucocephala)
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