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Eurasian Penduline Tit

Remiz pendulinus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Обыкновенный ремез | Кәдімгі құрқылтай
adult

2009-06-05
North Kazakhstan area
© Andrey Krasnikov

Distribution

Breeds in Western, Northern and Eastern Kazakhstan. On migration occurs almost everywhere. Wintern in Southern Kazakhstan. Please see detailed distribution in the section Subspecies.

Biology

Numerous, in places rare breeding migrant. Inhabits the flood lands forests, groves, deciduous or mixed forest-patches in forest-steppe zone; near water (river or lake) especially overgrown by willow, poplar, birch, aspen. On migration occurs also on various tree-bush vegetation far from water. Appears in mid-March – mid-April, migration finishes in mid-May. Breeds in separate pairs. Nest is built at the tip of a thin hanging down twig of willow, poplar, alder, birch and pine, at distance usually 2.5-3 m above the water or ground. Nest is constructed mainly by male from the grass bast and plant fluff (willow, poplar), or sometimes with sheep and camel hair. The entrance tube is built mainly by female. Clutch of 6-10 eggs is laid in early May to end of July. Female incubate clutch for 12-14 days, male regularly bring food to her. Only female feeds juveniles which fledge at age about three weeks old, in mid-June – early July. As soon as female feeds juveniles the male builds other nest and try to obtain another female. Probably rears one brood per season, but re-nesting after loss of first clutch is common. Autumn migration begins in end of July in flocks of several dozen birds. Latest birds recorded in September. In southern areas (Syrdarya valley), observed in mid-October.

Subspecies

Remiz pendulinus pendulinus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Description. Forehead is black, bordered behind by brown strip; crown and hindneck are white; brown mantle band is dark, saturated colouring. Male wing length 54.2-58.8 (56.0) mm.
    Distribution. Probably occurs in Western Kazakhstan on migration.

Remiz pendulinus caspius (Pelzam, 1870)

    Description. Forehead is black, crown and mantle are brown. On nape and neck the light colour can be developed. The sizes of this light field individually vary from significant (back half of crown and neck) to complete absence of light colour on these parts. Sizes are large, claw of back finger massive. Male wing length 53.4-56.9 (55.3) mm.
    Distribution. Breeds in Volga-Ural area, middle and lower current of Ural valley, eastward to Naurzum Reserve and Mugodzhary ridge. On migration occurs in upper reaches of Emba river and on Mangyshlak.

Remiz pendulinus jaxarticus (Severtzov, 1873)

    Description. General colour is similar to pendulinus, but brown mantle band is narrower. General sizes are lesser, claw of back finger less massive than in pendulinus. Male wing length 52.2-56.7 (54.3) mm.
    Distribution. Breeds in northern Kazakhstan from Mugodzhary ridge to Semipalatinsk, where it is common in Irtysh valley, near Ust-Kamenogorsk, in spurs of Narymskiy ridge and Chernyy Irtysh valley. On migration occurs in Central Kazakhstan, Syrdarya and Chu valleys. Occasionally winters on Syrdarya and in Chirchik valleys.

Remiz pendulinus stoliczkae (Hume, 1874)

    Description. On sizes and colour close to jaxarticus from which differs by more pale general colour and more light brown mantle band. Crown sometimes may be more greyish-whitish, less pure whitish. Claw of back finger as at jaxarticus. Male wing length 50.8-54.8 (53.0) mm.
    Distribution. Breeding in Southern Altai (found in spurs of Narymskiy ridge in 1993), on road Ust-Kamenogorsk - Rakhmanovskiye springs, in Zaysan and Balkhash-Alakol depressions, where nests observed in Sasykkol lake, in Urdzhar-Emel area, in Dzhungarskiy Alatau and in Ile delta. Distribution on migration is not found out.

References

Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург. Изд-во Уральского университета, 2000.

supplement

subspecies

Remiz pendulinus pendulinus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Remiz pendulinus caspius
(Pelzam, 1870)
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Remiz pendulinus jaxarticus
(Severtzov, 1873)
information gallery
Remiz pendulinus stoliczkae
(Hume, 1874)
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