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basic information

Great Tit

Parus major (Linnaeus, 1758)

Большая синица | Сарыбауыр шымшық
female

2008-08-15
Almaty
© Raouf Bairashev

Distribution

Breeds everywhere in Ural valley down to delta, in Ilek valley, in Northern Kazakhstan, in south to Naurzum Reserve and Shortandy; in middle part of Mugodjary ridge brood recorded 20 June; lives in Irtysh valley and in Pavlodar Trans-Irtysh area; in Kalbinskiy Altai, in Southwest Altai, in Kazakh Upland (Karkaralinsk, Kent), in Saur, Tarbagatay and Dzhungarskiy Alatau. In 1960-1962 it was introduced in Almaty and now breeds in Zailiyskiy Alatau, its foothills and on adjacent plains. In July 1997 recorded in Chulak mountains, in June 2002 in Charyn grove and from 1996 in Kungey Alatau. Since winter 1994 appears in Dzhabagly village. On dispersal and in winter occurs in south of breeding range, in lower Emba (Kulsary), Aralsk town, in Kurgaldzhino Reserve, at Karaganda and in Ile delta.

Biology

Common resident. Inhabits the deciduous, mixed and coniferous forests, groves and shelterbelts on plains and in mountains at altitudes up to 1300-1400 m. Pairs are formed in February-March. Breeds in separate pairs far one from another. Nest is located in tree hole (natural or bored by Woodpecker; in poplar, elm, willow, birch), in cavities of human construction, or in nest-boxes at height up to 5 m above the ground; nest is built from dry grass, rootlets and moss and is lined with plenty of hair and feathers. Clutch of 7-15 eggs is laid in mid-April to early July. Female builds nest for 4-10 days and incubates clutch for 11-14 days. Both parents feed juveniles which fledges in end of May to end of August. Female begins to lay the second clutch before 1-2 days or after 1-2 days of fledging of first offspring. Rears two broods per season, re-nesting after loss of first clutch is common. Most of the year lives in small groups of 3-10 birds.

Subspecies

Parus major major (Linnaeus, 1758)

References

Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург. Изд-во Уральского университета, 2000.

supplement

subspecies

Parus major major
(Linnaeus, 1758)

hybrids

Parus (major x bokharensis)
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Paridae

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unidentified birds


2017-09-21

Олег Белялов: Да, Анна, в этом случае нельзя и зелёную исключать. Иногда светлая полоса едва различима, а очень ярко смотрится видимо только у первогодков.
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2017-09-21

Олег Белялов: Загрузил фотографию зелёной пеночки, чтобы показать светлую полоску на крыле, которая образована каймами кроющих

2017-09-13

Аскар Исабеков: Мне кажется, что молодых птиц (а это же молодая, судя по чешуе на спине) лучше определять по взрослым особям, поскольку большинство признаков
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