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basic information

Azure Tit

Parus cyanus (Pallas, 1770)

Белая лазоревка | Ақ шымшық

2013-03-19
Eastern Kazakstan,Usti-Kamenogorsk .Komsomolskiy ostrov
© Vladimir Shefer

Distribution

Breeds in Northern, Eastern and South-Eastern Kazakhstan. Please see detailed distribution in the section Subspecies.

Biology

Common, in places rare resident. Inhabits the deciduous and riparian forests, groves, gardens, and occasionally reed-beds with shrubs; the mixed and coniferous forests with shrubs undergrowth; both on plains and in mountains at altitudes up to 2500 m. On dispersal prefers the deciduous forests and groves. Breeds in separate pairs far one from another. Pairs are formed since mid-February. Nest is located in tree hole, in cavities of human constructions (readily nests in nest-boxes), in pile of old reeds; and even in Muskrat burrow; nest is built for about two week from the thin twigs, dry grass and moss and is lined with plenty of hair, feathers or cotton-wool. Generally nest is located low above the ground. Clutch of 4-9 eggs is laid in early May to early July; female incubates clutch for 13-14 days. Both parents feed juveniles which fledge in mid-June to early August. Though the breeding time is very long the number of reared per season broods is unknown. In August-September, as soon as moulting finishes the Azure Tits begin to disperse singly, in pairs or in groups up to 15-20 birds.

Subspecies

Parus cyanus cyanus (Pallas, 1770)

    Description. Head is white. Mantle is darker, more bluish, less greyish-bluish; white on secondaries is less distributed than in hyperrhiphaeus.
    Distribution. Probably this race occurs on dispersal and in winter in Western Kazakhstan.

Parus cyanus hyperrhiphaeus (Dementiev et Heptner, 1932)

    Description. Head is white. Mantle is lighter, more greyish-bluish, less bluish; white on secondaries more distributed than in cyanus.
    Distribution. Breeds in middle current of Ural valley, in Northern Kazakhstan (Naurzum, Petropavlovsk area, Kokchetav upland), at Borovoye, Alekseyevka and Astana, in eastern part of Kazakh upland (Bayanaul, Kent, Kyzylray), near Karaganda and in Kalbinskiy Altai, in east to western foothills of Altai. On dispersal and in winter occurs somewhat in south (in Kurgaldzhino and near Chelkar station).

Parus cyanus yenisseensis (Buturlin, 1911)

    Description. Head is grey-tinged. mantle is lighter than in cyanus, but darker than in hyperrhiphaeus. White on secondaries distributed same as in cyanus.
    Distribution. Breeds in Southwest Altai, in Zaysan depression, Saur ridge and in eastern part of Dzhungarskiy Alatau. In this range occurs also on dispersal and wintering.

Parus cyanus koktalensis (Portenko, 1954)

    Description. Colour is similar to hyperrhiphaeus; differs by more massive bill.
    Distribution. Breeds in Chu valley, Southern Trans-Balkhash area, in lower current of Ile, Karatal, Lepsy and Aksu rivers and in Alakol depression. In the same range occurs in winter.

Parus cyanus tianschanicus (Menzbier, 1884)

    Description. Head is with intens grey tinge, darker than in yenisseensis. Mantle is the same as in cyanus, and darker than in yenisseensis and hyperrhiphaeus. White on secondaries is less distributed than in cyanus and yenisseensis.
    Distribution. Breeds and winters in Tien Shan, Dzhungarskiy Alatau, Tarbagatay, in middle and upper current of Ile valley.

References

Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург. Изд-во Уральского университета, 2000.

supplement

subspecies

Parus cyanus cyanus
(Pallas, 1770)
Parus cyanus hyperrhiphaeus
(Dementiev et Heptner, 1932)
information gallery
Parus cyanus yenisseensis
(Buturlin, 1911)
information gallery
Parus cyanus koktalensis
(Portenko, 1954)
information gallery
Parus cyanus tianschanicus
(Menzbier, 1884)
information gallery

hybrids

Parus (cyanus x flavipectus)
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other names

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