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Paddyfield Warbler

Acrocephalus agricola (Jerdon, 1845)

Индийская камышевка | Қызғылтсары айқабақ
adult

2010-08-20
Alakol lake
© Gennadiy Dyakin

Description

The Paddyfield Warbler is less than Blyth's Reed Warbler; with more compact constitution; rounder head; but slightly long tail. The upperparts are rusty-brown without dark streaks and strips; the rump and uppertail are rustier than the mantle. The crown also without sharp streaks, but in distinction from the Blyth's Reed, Eurasian Reed and Marsh Warblers the head is slightly darker than mantle especially on the flanks of crown. The supercilium is white or whitish, broad and long, away continues behind the eye; the eye ring is low expressed. The underparts are whitish, very light; especially on the chin and throat from which the white continues to the flanks of the neck. It is distinguished from Sedge Warbler by the absence of dark streaks on the crown and mantle (the upperparts aren't contrast); from Hippolais and Phylloscopus Warblers by the not plain upperparts (the crown is darker than mantle; the rump is rusty), by rounder tail; and by habitat (always near the water). The bill is relatively short, dark; the lower mandible's base is yellow. Both sexes are similar. The seasonal differences of plumage are insignificant. In the second part of summer birds become rustier. Juveniles have heavy brownish, rusty or buffy tinge on the underparts. The "bird in hand" evidences: 1st primary is longer than wing coverts; 2nd primary is shorter than 5th one; the length from the tip of 1st primary to the top of the wing less than 15 mm. Weight 7-14 gramms, length about 13, wing 5,2-6,2, wingspan 15-18 cm.

Distribution

The Paddyfield Warbler nests throughout in Kazakhstan from the extreme south to extreme north, reaching in the north to the south of the forest zone. The range is mosaic and difficult. The detailed distribution in Kazakhstan please see in the chapter "Subspecies".

Biology

The Paddyfield Warbler is common, in places numerous breeding migrant. It inhabits the tall and low reed beds on the fresh and saltwater lakes and rivers on plains. On migration it occurs in the bush thickets, tall weeds and rare in the forest-belts. It appears in mid-April – early May. It breeds in separate pairs, not far one from another. The nest is attached to vertical culm of the reed, or rare of the reed-mace at 5-100 cm from the water-table; from the reed panicles, vegetation fluff and some dry grass; and is lined with thin and soft parts of panicle and vegetation fluff. In the construction of the outside nest it uses the wet water-plants which on drying make the nest more stable. Clutches of 4-5 eggs found in end May – mid-June. Both parents feed juveniles, which fledge in end June – late July. In consideration to other Reed Warblers it migrates late; the autumn migration begins in August, majority of the birds migrate till mid-September. Latest migrants recorded in mid-October. On Chokpak Pass the Paddyfield Warblers were ringed in spring (19 May 1983, 30 April-3 May 2001, 17 April 2002, 4 May 2004, 21 May 2005) and in autumn (9 September 1969, 22 September 1986, 24 September 1987, 3 October 1993, 25 August 1995, 25 August – 11 October 2002, 27 August – 18 September 2004).

Subspecies

Acrocephalus agricola septima (Gavrilenko, 1954)

    Description. The upper parts are brownish-grey; less brownish than on other races.
    Distribution. Probably breeds in Volga-Ural area on northern coast of Caspian Sea, in lowers of Ural and Uil rivers; and also on Kamysh-Samar lakes and on Kushum river at Dongulyuk reservoir.

Acrocephalus agricola brevipennis (Severtzov, 1873)

    Description. The upper parts are lighter, less brown more brown-olive than on septima.
    Distribution. Breeds on the lakes and rivers to the east from Ural valley. On migration occurs throughout on plains and in foothills.

References

Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005.
В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург, Изд-во Уральского университета, 2000.
Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999.

supplement

subspecies

Acrocephalus agricola septima
(Gavrilenko, 1954)
information gallery
Acrocephalus agricola brevipennis
(Severtzov, 1873)
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