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Golden Eagle

Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus, 1758)

Беркут | Бүркіт
adult

2011-04-30
Middle current of Ile river, lower than Kapchagai
© Askar Isabekov

Distribution

Breeds in northern Kazakhstan, in Altai, Ustyurt, Kyzylkum desert and in the mountains of south and south-east Kazakhstan. On migrations occur everywhere. Please see detailed distribution in the section Subspecies.

Biology

Rare, in places quite common resident. Inhabits the mountains up to 3000 m, riparian forests in deserts, little forests and groves in steppe zone. Breeds in separate pairs, not closer than 2-3 km apart. Nest is built on the rocks or in trees; from the dry twigs and is lined with hair, rags, the fresh twigs with leaf are also used. Each pair has 2-4 nests, which are rotated every year. Eagles repair old or build new nest in March or early April. Clutches of 2 (rarely 1) eggs is in April - May. Incubation time is about 45 days, nestlings hatch in the end of May - June. Both parents feed nestlings which are fledge mid-July - August. Broods stay together a very long time, and break up in winter time only. In out of breeding season Golden Eagles disperse widely, disappearing in high-altitude belts in November.

Subspecies

Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Description. Light race. Upper parts are rusty-brownish, forehead and crown are brown and lighter than in other races; the long feathers of nape and top-neck are rather long and rusty-gold. Male wing length 590-670 (630), female 670-700 (685) mm.
    Distribution. Probably occurs in Western Kazakhstan.

Aquila chrysaetos kamtschatica (Severtzov, 1888)

    Description. Dark race. Upper parts are blackish and darker than in chrysaetos. Forehead and crown are darker than chrysaetos, the crown is with dark cap. The long feathers of nape and top-neck are rusty-reddish and slightly narrower and darker than in chrysaetos. Male wing length 618-705 (657), female 650-741 (695) mm.

    Distribution. Breeds in Northern Kazakhstan and Altai. From 1993 breeds in Naurzum, Tersek and Sypsyn pine forests. Probably, a bird of this race was shot in Kurgaldzhino.

Aquila chrysaetos homeyeri (Severtzov, 1888)

    Description. General colouring is somewhat darker than in chrysaetos but a slightly lighter than in kamtschatica. Forehead and crown are brownish, the crown has noticeably blackish cap which is less obvious than in kamtschatica. The long feathers of nape and top-neck are shorter than in previous races; are rusty-red slightly lighter than in kamtschatica. Male wing length 600-643 (622), female 635-684 (662) mm.
    Distribution. Breeds in Kyzylkum desert, Ustyurt and probably in Betpak-Dala.

Aquila chrysaetos daphanea (Severtzov, 1888)

    Description. General colour is dark as in kamtschatica; upper parts are blackish. Forehead and crown are dark, crown is with blackish cap. The long feathers of nape and top-neck are slightly shorter than in chrysaetos and similar to homeyeri; its colour is rich brown-red. Male wing length 600-680 (640), female 660-720 (705) mm.
    Distribution. Breeds in Tien Shan, Dzhungarskiy Alatau and Tarbagatay ridges.

References

Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург. Изд-во Уральского университета, 2000.

supplement

subspecies

Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos
(Linnaeus, 1758)
information gallery
Aquila chrysaetos kamtschatica
(Severtzov, 1888)
information gallery
Aquila chrysaetos homeyeri
(Severtzov, 1888)
information gallery
Aquila chrysaetos daphanea
(Severtzov, 1888)
information gallery

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